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Why vanadium?  |  Steel |  Vanadium RedoxLithium Vanadium Phosphate
What is vanadium?
Vanadium is a soft, silvery gray (in elemental form) mineral that is classified as a ductile transition metal.  It has a wide range of oxidation states, which produce varied colors in different vanadium compounds, most notably green and purple, as in American Vanadium's brand marque.
Vanadium is produced as a by-product of steel smelter slag and is also mined in two different kinds of mineral deposits: disseminated in carbon rich deposits and shales (as with American Vanadium's Gibellini project), and in magnetite (iron oxide) deposits alongside titanium.
Primary uses
The majority of vanadium, approximately 90%, is used as an alloying element to strengthen steel. Adding only a fraction of one percent of vanadium to steel converts it to a High Strength Low Alloy material.  Other uses for vanadium include chemicals for pigments and catalysts and specialty alloys with titanium and aluminum for use in jet engines and jet airframes.
A new use has been found in Vanadium Redox Batteries (VRB), which are flow batteries designed to store large amounts of energy in a safe manner that can be adjusted to meet variable energy loads.  Unlike other large battery systems, VRBs can be charged and discharged an unlimited number of times without capacity drop-off.  Applications for VRB batteries include uninterruptable power supply, wind storage, solar storage, and critical storage systems.
The market for vanadium
Consumption of vanadium worldwide in 2007 was estimated to be 58,600 metric tons. The three largest producing countries are South Africa, China, and Russia. Production in North America comes from spent catalyst, residues from burning coal and heavy oil, byproduct of uranium mining, and imported pig iron slag. There has been no vanadium mining in the US since the 1980s.
Global consumption of vanadium has been rising recently with the worldwide boom in infrastructure construction. Trends in consumption has shown annual increases in the range of 6% to 7%, with forecast consumption to continue at that rate. The Gibellini Project would produce 4% to 5% of world usage of vanadium, helping supply keep up with the growing demand for this strategic metal.
More information
Check out the following websites for further information about vanadium:
NOTE:  The above link(s) contain information that reflect the facts and opinions of the original authors of those articles. American Vanadium Corp. does not endorse any outside facts or opinions, and accepts no responsibility for the information provided thereby.
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